FruitDisease - Pests and Diseases (Nematode-borne viruses)

Soft fruit pests and diseases

Nematode-borne viruses

Several serious diseases of raspberries such as raspberry yellow dwarf, raspberry leaf curl and raspberry ringspot were identified many years ago to be associated with nematode-borne viruses including Raspberry ringspot virus, Strawberry latent ringspot virus, Arabis mosaic virus and Tomato black ring virus. Only AMV and RRV have been of recent serious economic impact in the UK, and RRV is largely restricted to Scotland and AMV largely restricted to England and Wales. Although RRV once caused serious disease problems in commercial raspberry crops, it has been effectively controlled through the introduction of virus-tested stocks of raspberry and at sites containing viruliferous Longidorid vector nematodes, by treatment of soil with nematicide prior to planting. Outbreaks of AMV are more difficult to control because once its nematode vector Xiphinema diversicaudatum acquires AMV it retains the ability to transmit the virus for long periods. Thus, the small number of viruliferous nematodes surviving the soil treatment are able to transmit AMV when the treated area is replanted. So although nematode-transmitted raspberry viruses may be infrequently encountered in the UK at present, there remains a threat once nematicides are withdrawn from use and if planting occurs on land with reservoirs of viruliferous nematodes.

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Raspberry ringspot virus symptoms Typical symptoms

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